ISO /Cor Free Download. May Ergonomics – Evaluation of static working postures – Corrigendum. The publication of international standards for evaluating working postures and movements, ISO 11, in and EN 1, in , may. Ergonomics. Nov;50(11) International standards on working postures and movements ISO and EN Delleman NJ(1), Dul J.
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It is identical to ISO A list of organizations represented on this committee can be obtained onrequest to its secretary. This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisionsof a contract. Users uso responsible for its correct application. Compliance with a British Standard cannot confer immunityfrom legal obligations. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards 111226 be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.
Eworldwide for CEN national Members. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by Marchand conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. Endorsement notice The text of ISO Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.
Once this standard is cited in jso Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative clauses of this standard given in Table ZB. The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.
International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject fee patent rights.
ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Annex A forms a normative part of this International Standard. Annex B is for information only.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text orby endorsement, at the latest by Februaryand conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latestby February EN describesthe principles designers should adopt in order to take account of ergonomic factors. This International Standard describes how these principles should be applied by using anthropometric requirementsfor the design of workstations at machinery.
In addition it is recommended fred the postures and movements that are imposed by the machinery design areevaluated as described in ISO and prEN It is based on current ergonomic knowledgeand anthropometric measurements.
This International Standard does not specifically include space demands freee maintenance,repairing and cleaning work.
This International Standard does not give recommendations specifically for visual display terminal workstations atmachinery. Situations where people are to be prevented from reaching a hazard are dealt with in ISO Thesenormative references are cited at the appropriate places in rree text and the publications are listed hereafter.
For undated references, the latest edition of thepublication referred to applies including amendments. ISO Safety of machinery – Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs ISO Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery – Part 3: Anthropometric data ISO Machinery and workstations shall be designed to ensure the best postures and movement patterns taking intoaccount technical and economic constraints.
The design of the machine, workstation, task andequipment shall encourage a certain amount of movement and shifting of posture. The design should also allow theoperator to change freely between the sitting and standing posture during the working day. When the designerchooses the main work posture, sitting is generally to be preferred. The standing postures fgee less recommended.
Kneeling, crowling and lying down should be avoided as working postures. Figure 1 also indicates how factors canbe modified to allow a sitting posture. These dimensions are based on anthropometric data. The anthropometric data originate from staticmeasurements of nude persons and do not take into account body movements, clothing, equipment, machineryoperating conditions or environmental conditions.
Annex A, table A.
Physical dimensions associated with the workstation are denoted by the capital letters A, B, C etc. These tables give dimensions calculated from human body measurements for European countries.
4 x 9 OVAL
Anthropometricmeasurements are denoted by lower case letters with indices. Together these data are used to specify the dimensions for the workstations atmachinery. The dimensions calculated will be the minimum for clearance dimensions and the maximum for reach dimensions. Wherever possible, the dimensions for clearance should be increased and the dimensions for reach should bedecreased.
Width allowances y y – for movement of legs add at least mm. Depth allowances z z- for movements at knee height add at least 50 mm1 z- for movements for the feet add tree least mm. Annex B provides additional information on body movements and associated space requirements. Workstation dimensions shall accommodate the anthropometric variation in the user groups and the different worktasks, e.
BS EN ISO 机械安全.机械工作站设计时对人体测量的要求 – MBA智库文档
The best method of fitting the workstation to the user and the task is to make both the working surface and the seateasily adjustable. Figure 2 – Examples of variations in sitting posture In order to avoid discomfort caused by sitting for a long time in a fixed position the workstation design shall allowvariations in postures.
This shall be done by adding sufficient allowances, as given in clause 5 see also Annex B ,to the relevant anthropometric dimensions when calculating the space requirements according to tables 4 and 5. Figure 2 shows variations in sitting postures ranging from slightly leaning backward to slightly leaning forward andillustrates how movements of the legs and upper body are interdependent.
In order to obtain appropriate sitting postures sufficient space for free body movements shall be provided, especiallyfor the legs and feet. The working area for the arms shall be within appropriate distances according to the intendedfrequency and duration of movements of the body, head and limbs.
For example, the placement of loading andunloading points on a machine shall be selected so that operation can be carried out in the preferred working area. Account shall also be taken of the visual demands of the tasks which affect the position and movement of the headand body. The need for additional space for associated body movements should be assessed, tables 2 and 3 giveinformation on the angles of movement of the head and body when seated.
The influence of body movement on theeffective field of vision is also shown see also Annex B. However, the actual values arehighly variable and certain populations, e. Wearing spectacles or personal protective equipment, which restrict thefield of vision, can increase the need for body movement. Such postures should not bemaintained for any length of time. Only movement to the left is shown. Movements to the right are symmetrical. According to table 4, the working areas are designated by curved lines.
Working height in this standard means the height of the hands when working, while workingsurface height means the height of the supporting level. The working height should be chosen to provide anadequate posture for the body and at the same time fulfil visual needs. The choice is a compromise betweendemands on low load on the neck, arms, shoulders and back and demands on viewing distance for adequate visualcontrol.
The optimal working surface height and the slope depend on the work task. The figure 3 provides guidelinesthat can be used in most situations. Handling of large, but notvariable, depen-surface below elbowexcessively bulky or heavyding on the sizeheight if compatibleobjectsof the objectwith space for legs; aforward sloping seatcan provide morespaceFigure 3 – Recommendations for working heightsIn order to provide sufficient clearance for the thighs while allowing a good working height for the hands the workingsurface should be as thin as possible; this is a prerequisite for users to achieve good working postures.
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Theminimum thickness of the surface will depend on the strength characteristics of the material used and other technicaldemands. In practice a 30 mm thick surface will often provide an acceptable compromise between the space needsand the strength characteristics. The most appropriate angle for a sloping surface is a compromisebetween the visual demands, the imposed loading on the neck, back and shoulders and an angle where the objectsstill remain on the surface.
An angle of about 15 is recommended for many fine manipulative tasks with high visualdemands. Continuous work with raised upper arms should be avoided. If this is not possible, arm rests shall be provided. Hand work should be arranged so that the hands are predominantly in the preferred working area see table 4.
Continuous work with unsupported arms should be avoided, even in this area. For occasional tasks with lightweightobjects the maximal working area may be used. Normally theseat should be rotatable. The main physiological features of seated work are: The seat shall be easily adjustable to the specific requirements of the individual user. A mechanism should be incorporated so that variations of posture between forward and backwardleaning can be adopted.
This mechanism shall be lockable. A forward sloping seat is recommended for work in a leaning forward position and may help when it isimpossible to make the working surface and material thin enough to fit some individuals.
The backrest shall provide good support for the back, especially the lower back, in all relevantpostures. The backrest shall not restrict the necessary free movements of the arms. Measurements are based on a horizon-tal seat surfaceNOTE: The advantages of these raised sitting postures are the same as for sitting on a normal seat.
It also allows changesin posture from sitting to standing. In order to provide for standing work, it is preferable to provide a means for adjusting the height of the main workingarea. Where this is not possible, a means for adjusting the height of the floor may be provided. Where it isnecessary to use a fixed height working area this should be set so as to accommodate the majority of the expecteduser population.
This should take account of: Fixed working heights and working surface heights should be selected between the appropriate maximum andminimum working heights given in table 8.